The Canadian Galloway Association is the national governing body responsible for Breed Improvement, Breed Advancement, and Breed Promotion.
The Association promotes and regulates the breeding of Galloways, Belted Galloways and White Galloways as three separate breeds in three separate sections of the same herd book.
All three breeds come in black, dun or red. Each breed is registered in a separate section of the Canadian Galloway Herd Book. The Galloway section of the Canadian Herd Book is the oldest continuously closed Galloway herd book in the world.
HISTORY OF GALLOWAYS IN CANADA
The Graham brothers of Vaughan Township, Ontario, Canada first introduced the Galloway breed into North America in 1853. In 1866, Galloways were first imported into the United States. In 1872, with the formation of the Ontario Galloway Herd Book, the first registrations of Galloways in Canada took place. Following this Canadian initiative, in 1882 Galloway breeders in Canada and the United States combined to form the North American Galloway Association which was incorporated under Ontario’s “Agricultural and Arts Act”.
The American breeders went their own way in 1902, forming the American Galloway Breeders’ Association. As a result, the Canadian breeders formed their own association in 1905, the “North American Galloway Breeders’ Association”, under Canada’s “Livestock Pedigree Act”. The constitution of the “N.A.G.B.A.” stated that the Association would maintain a closed Herd Book and that all registrations and transfers would be recorded by the Canadian National Livestock Records. This continues to this day under the successor organization, the Canadian Livestock Records Corporation. In 1939, the North American Galloway Breeders’ Association was renamed the Canadian Galloway Association.
Galloway’s are naturally polled having a bone knob on the top of there skull referred to as a poll. The breed is also equipped with a dual hair coat with one layer being a thick woolly undercoat for warmth and the other being stiff guard hairs to help shed water. Although they are equipped with a shaggy hair coat as part of the adaptability of the breed they shed most of it in the summer months or in warmer climates. Thus making Galloway more adapted to harsher climates.
Either black, red or dun
Solids are called "Galloway", they are the original breed. They are predominately Black in colour but can also be Red and various shades of Dun.
Galloway are one of the oldest established beef breeds in the world. They were named after the region of Scotland in which they were found (Galloway). They can now be found in many different regions around the world.
With black, red or dun markings
"White Galloway", the newest member of the Galloway family, originate from three independent sources; one in Scotland, one in the U.S.A. and one in Canada. White Galloway cattle originating in the U.S.A. were first imported into Canada in 1966 by Mr. Jim Airth of De Winton, Alberta. The White Galloway section of the of the Canadian Galloway Herd Book was created in 1990.
Black, red or dun with white belt
Galloway breeds have been proven to be superior feed converters. In tests at Olds Agricultural College, Olds, Alberta, over a 10 year period Galloways were shown to use the least feed per kilogram of weight gain. These high feed conversion rates are what makes all three Galloway breeds profitable year after year.
This is one of the most important breed characteristics of all Galloway breeds. The beef is lean yet well marbled. Because of the Galloway double hair coat, carcasses do not have the extra layer of back fat common to many other breeds. Galloways dress out at 60% to 62% of live weight. The University of Guelph study discussed under Healthy Beefshows the exceptionally low fat content of the Galloway.
GOOD HAIR COAT = LOWER WINTER FEED COSTS
Research at Montana State University has shown that beef cows with a hair coat just one inch thicker than average requires 20% to 25% less digestible feed intake to maintain body weight in cold weather. The double hair coat found on all three breeds means Galloways need less feed to maintain good body condition.
An added advantage of the double hair coat is its ability to shed water. Rain hardly penetrates, even in cold weather. Galloways thrive year round in the harshest of climates and require minimal shelter from winter cold to summer heat.
All Galloway breeds are naturally polled. Most cattlemen find that the use of any of the Galloway cattle breeds will eliminate the problem of horns in the resulting calf crop.
SUPERIOR FORAGING ABILITY
Studies conducted by Mols Laboratory of Denmark have demonstrated that of all breeds tested, the Galloway breeds consume more varieties of flora than any of the others breeds on test. This ability to digest the less desirable species of flora means Galloways will thrive in less than ideal conditions.
MEAT FOR THE HEALTH CONSCIOUS
Over the past 25 years, beef has become much leaner and healthier. Consumers of Galloway meat have long known where to find the best source of exceptionally lean beef - Galloway beef.
It has been well documented by Health and Welfare Canada that it is the saturated fat in our diet that raises low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in human blood. It is the LDL in our blood that is responsible for heart attacks and strokes.
A 1994 fat content analysis of Galloway meat in the National Sciences Department of the University of Guelph (Ontario) revealed a most healthy composition, the total fat content of Galloway meat was shown to be exceptionally low, in the range of 2% and in particular the harmful saturated fat content was very low, in the range of 1%.
Diets for human consumption must contain certain essential fatty acids, namely linoleic acid (omega6) and linolenic (omega3). These fatty acids, also called polyunsaturated fats, are essential for human cells and can not be manufactured by the human body.
However, linoleic (omega6) fatty acid in excessive amounts can produce certain cancers. It has been recommended that the omega6:omega3 ratio in foods be lower than 10:1. In this regard, Galloway meat is exceptionally healthy having omega6:omega3 ratios of about 3:1.
These findings reveal that Galloway meat is as good as chicken or fish in a healthy diet. A healthy diet should contain a certain amount of lean meat. Lean beef is a good source of dietary protein. In this regard, nothing could be better than Galloway meat.
Profile from The Encyclopedia of Historic and Endangered Livestock and Poultry Breeds :
" Today’s North American Galloways again have strong feet and legs, hardiness, longevity, thriftiness, high-grading carcasses, and that magnificent coat, which serves as natural insulation against winter cold and summer insects. Black is still the prevalent color, while dun, red, and white cattle are rarer. The black coat can appear tipped with brown, but this is due to the effects of sun and weather. Ranchers have observed that Galloways are strongly maternal, cautious toward strange events, and protective of the herd when faced with a predator. Cows weigh 1,000 to 1,400 pounds, and bulls average about 1,800 pounds.
The Galloway calf is born small but matures quickly. The Galloway is also able to produce superior beef directly from grass. In crosses, the Galloway transmits a high level of hybrid vigor and polled calves. Numerous studies have proven that the Galloway and Galloway cross can be fed up to 30 percent less grain while producing a more profitable lean carcass. The meat tends to be well marbled but with a wide, fat rim, giving it both consumer appeal and tenderness. The Galloway can also produce excellent, dark, flavorful lean beef under natural conditions."
Reference: Vorwald Dohner, J. (2001). Galloway. The Encyclopedia of Historic and Endangered Livestock and Poultry Breeds (pp. 258-260). Yale University Press.